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Risk of infection remains a major concern for surgeons. The expansion of surgery towards the end of the 19th century determined a noticeable increase in septicemia and gangrene, and surgeons developed various techniques to limit them. In a previous publication, we reminded our readers of one of the gems of Italian surgery, Dr. Giuseppe Ruggi, who operated in Bologna from the end of 19th to the beginning of the 20th century. To him we owe the introduction and dissemination of the antiseptic method in Bologna. His scientific activity continued with Dr. Benedetto Schiassi, his successor. The techniques used to avoid microbial contamination by the Italian surgeon Dr. Schiassi, are particularly interesting, as Schiassi’s tentorium is still useful. Despite advances in surgical technologies, many innovations to prevent infection in surgery proposed in the past are still relevant today.