Different ways to manage indocyanine green fluorescence to different purposes in liver surgery: A systematic review

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Sarah Molfino *
Marie Sophie Alfano
Sara Benedicenti
Beatrice Molteni
Michele Peroni
Mattia Baresi
Antonio Tarasconi
Fausto Catena
Luigi Boni
Nazario Portolani
Gian Luca Baiocchi
(*) Corresponding Author:
Sarah Molfino | sarahmolfino@gmail.com


Fluorescent properties of indocyanine green (ICG) for hepatic tumor identification and features have been recently studied. The aim is to review the published data on the use of ICG enhanced fluorescence surgery during liver resection. A systematic search of literature was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane and Web of Science libraries. For all eligible studies, the following data were extracted: study design, number of cases, management of indocyanine green (dose, time and method of administration), type of surgery, outcome variables, false positive and accuracy value, if reported. For statistical analysis, it was considered significant P<0.05, when published. 19 articles were fully analyzed and data were extracted. A total of 718 cases were globally analyzed as study group. No side effects of ICG were reported in any articles. 12 prospective observational, 1 randomized and 2 case-control studies were found. Three case reports and one experimental on animal model were also included. Detection of superficial lesions, segmental staining, biliary anatomy investigation (biliary leakage detection, biliary tree anatomy) were the main clinical application of fluorescence liver guided surgery. The overall quality of the data currently available is limited but the role of fluorescence guided liver surgery seems promising.

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